This is just my opinion, arrived at by personal research on the web.
More than a month since the (allegedly) biggest mass shooting in the history of the USA took place in Las Vegas and we still don’t know what exactly happened. The officials, to be sure, gave us some pieces of the puzzle, but if we wanna get the whole picture, sorry, there is none. How long will it take before the public will be fed up with all these botched investigations, covered-up by mainstream media?
We are scholars and teachers at Princeton, Harvard, and Yale who have some thoughts to share and advice to offer students who are headed off to colleges around the country. Our advice can be distilled to three words:
Think for yourself
Gunshot wounds: fact vs. fiction
Maybe there is more to the story but before we get lost in speculation, we need proof that people in Las Vegas were struck by bullets, fired from semi-automatic rifles with a muzzle velocity > 600 m/s or > 2000 feet per second (fps). Please note that speed of sound is 343 m/s. So, if you are shot at with a rifle, you would ›feel‹ the impact near you or notice the whizzing/crack of the bullet flying by – before you hear what almost all eyewitnesses called ›firework‹ or› firecrackers‹ (= firing of the rifle in the distance).
What the experts say
Keep in mind that semi-automatic rifles, like an AR-15 with a muzzle velocity of 975 m/s (3,200 ft/s), are not comparable with BBs or small caliber handguns. If you see the Las Vegas victims and hear their ›gunshot wound‹-stories you wonder what’s happening here. It seems it ain’t no big deal getting shot by a rifle. In real life, high velocity bullets do extreme damage to the body. Here are some quotes from experts who know a lot about gunshot wounds:
»I won’t talk about rifle injuries because you won’t see too many and if you see them there’s not much to do,« said Dr. Andreas Grabinsky, program director for emergency and trauma anesthesia at Harborview Medical Center, in a graphic presentation made for surgeons.
»[I]f you’re struck in the liver with an AR-15, it would be like dropping a watermelon onto the cement. It just is disintegrated,« Ernest E. Moorea, a Denver Health trauma surgeon told Washington Post reporters.
»The bullet from an AR-15 might miss the femoral artery in the leg, but cavitation may burst the artery anyway, causing death by blood loss. A swath of stretched and torn tissue around the wound may die. That’s why a handgun wound might require only one surgery but an AR-15 bullet wound might require three to ten,« says Peter Rhee, a trauma surgeon at the University of Arizona in a WIRED article titled What an AR-15 can do to the body.
»Once [expanding bullets fired from Assault Rifles] enter the body, they fragment and explode, pulverizing bones, tearing blood vessels and liquefying organs. … Because of spinal damage, my patients become paralyzed, unable to walk and sometimes unable to move anything from the neck down. Because of blood loss and infections, they have their leg bones removed and undergo limb amputations. Because of intestinal perforations, they wear colostomy bags to reroute feces to a bag over their skin. Many require multiple surgeries, followed by a lifetime of hospitalizations from antibiotic-resistant infections and chronic, unremitting pain. Some become addicted to painkillers,« wrote Dr. Leana Wen, an emergency physician in a New York Times article titled What Bullets Do to Bodies.
Did the distance make a difference?
The distance from the Mandalay Bay to the Las Vegas Village where the concert took place is approx 500 yards. A nurse from the UMC explained in an interview, two days after the shooting, because of the distance, the gunshot wounds were similar to handgun wounds. But »wounding is an extremely complex situation with variables of bullet size, velocity, shape, spin, distance from muzzle to target, (oblique angle) and nature of tissue,« states the Firearms Tutorial for Forensic Education. So without having these details, we can only guess how fatal an AR is at 500 yards. But we know that the M16A1 which is the (fully automatic) military version of the (semi automatic) AR-15, has a »maximum effective range from 460 up to 600 yards.« You can compare different bullet calibers and how much velocity the bullets lose on the way to the target with a ballistic calculator. So if we only consider the velocity of the rifle bullet (5,56x45mm) at 500 yards it’s pretty comparable to a 115 grain 9mm parabellum at point blank range.
But in an article titled Gunshot wounds: Bullets, ballistics, and mechanisms of injury, the authors write that
»velocity often dominates discussions of wound ballistics; however, a bullet can inflict more lethal damage to tissue by fragmentation and yaw than by high velocity. A wound of an extremity caused by an AK-47 bullet (7.62x39mm) that does not hit bone is often similar to a handgun bullet wound. A soft- or hollow-point bullet fired from a civilian rifle deforms soon after entering tissue and produces a much more severe extremity wound.« Source: American Journal of Roentgenology. 1990;155: 685-690. 10.2214/ajr.155.4.2119095
Several doctors in a Las Vegas hospital told a reporter from The New Yorker that the bullets in the victims of the Vegas shooting appeared to be expanding, or hollow-point, bullets. »They are designed to expand and fragment on impact, with the goal of ravaging as much tissue as possible as they travel through a fleshly target.«
A picture is worth a thousand words
After going through a lot of eyewitness accounts and media reports regarding the Las Vegas massacre, my conclusion is pretty much this graphic picture, which shows the 21-year old The Foothill High graduate Mykenzie Lane in the emergency room with a gunshot wound to her foot. We have to keep in mind, that this young woman was in a hellish war zone only hours ago when that picture was taken.
If we want to know how it looks like when somebody is shot in the gut with a handgun in real life, read the experience of Antoni and compare that to the Vegas survivor stories.
Shot in the stomach in the streets of New York
»On July 5, 2013 I became an innocent victim of a drive-by shooting. While waiting for the ambulance, I was unable to do anything except keep pressure on my wound. The bullet entered my chest, destroyed my spleen, part of my pancreas and my stomach. Two days after the shooting, I was kept under high sedation, an induced coma. I remember bits and pieces of this part of my life, but they were highly distorted with all the medication I was taking. [see a picture of him in the hospital; note the IVs]. In the weeks following, I stayed at the Kings County Hospital Center. Seven days in the ICU, eight in primary care. I owe my life to the brave health care workers who worked endlessly day and night to make sure I stayed breathing. I was in a coma for some of it. My intestines, and digestive tract have gone through a lot because of the laparoscopy, the splenectomy and other procedures. I don’t know when the colic pain will trigger or when it will stop.«
Let’s go back to that dreadful night in Las Vegas where Natalie Vanderstay was shot in the stomach and trampled. Despite a leg which was »torn apart by shrapnel [but] wrapped tightly in a flannel shirt« she »hopped a fence to find shelter.« A taxi took her to the UMC. Two days later she was able to give TV-Interviews and was visited by Dr. Phil in the hospital. Then we have Derek Harp, a soldier who »received multiple gunshot wounds«, but three days later, we can see him walking casually to his interview with KCRA, and sitting comfortably in a chair, wearing jeans and t-shirt. During the interview he couldn’t specify his wounds or injuries. Besides a band-aid on his fractured elbow, nothing indicates that he was shot multiple times.
Compared to Antonis experience, is that really possible?
Victims who were shot with high velocity hollow-point rounds in the
head, neck/shoulder, shoulder/lungs, shoulder, shoulder, butt/hip, leg, gut & forearm, elbow & stomach, pelvis, back, 2x in the back, leg, arm, jaw, lung/spine, elbow, knee, stomach/pelvis, fibula/hip, arm & abdomen, neck, chest, 2x in the arm & side, stomach
are doing fine. In a matter of days, still in the hospital or already at home, they were happy to give interviews and tell their ›traumatic‹ experiences over and over again. I wonder which medical team would allow this to happen.
Some of the survivor stories are sounding too good to be true. It’s really miraculous to survive three rifle bullets to the abdomen or one bullet to the forehead or one bullet to the temple or four entry and exit wounds on the chest or several shrapnel to the heart without trauma care in pick up trucks and taxis.
Surprisingly, too, some of the victims were allowed to leave the hospital hours or days later despite the fact that they still have bullets/shrapnel inside the body: back, pelvis, back, neck, leg, brain, hip, jaw, back (2x), thigh, shoulder.
It seems we are back in World War 2 as I learned that »in most circumstances, you don’t want to remove an implanted bullet.« But »the WHO stated: ›There is no known level of lead exposure that is considered safe‹. In conclusion, this work showed that bullets retained in the body are not innocuous (harmless).« [PubMed] By the way CNN should know that, because of an article they published this year titled Bullet fragments linked to lead poisoning, CDC study says.
The most important question!
Should we trust the victims‘ stories?
The most important question regarding the Las Vegas shooting is this: Are all the survivor stories, the media told us, absolutely accurate and true? Do we have confirmation from the hospitals regarding the patients and the details of their gunshot wounds? It seems, we don’t.
»The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) privacy regulations include restrictions on the information that health care providers may list in a facility directory and release to the public, including the news media. The directory elements are:
(can be confirmed only to those who ask about the patient[s] by name)
(using terms: undetermined / good / fair / serious / critical / deceased )«
»The HIPAA Privacy Rule requires that all patients be given the opportunity to opt out of the patient directory. If a patient chooses to opt out, no information can be released about that patient.Written authorization from the patient is needed to obtain medical information beyond directory information, including photographs or interviews. Hospitals may deny the media access to a patient if it is determined that the presence of photographers or reporters would cause a disruption or interfere with appropriate clinical care, or if other health or safety factors need to be considered. The hospital spokesperson may not speculate on how, why or what caused a patient’s injury or illness, but may offer a one‐word patient condition while the individual is a patient in the facility.«
Source: Guide to Media Relations for Colorado Hospitals and Health Care Facilities and the News Media.
With other words: It’s up to the patient or spokesperson of the patient to tell the media what kind of gunshot wound(s) he or she sustained.
Take Jody Ansell as example: The Canadian woman told the press, that she was shot in the arm and a friend of hers was shot in the stomach. But what proof is there that this really happened to her and her friend? The media won’t get a confirmation from the hospital or the authorities. It seems, we have to take their words (on social media?) for it.
Another example is Ryan Sarrazin, a Canadian who was »seriously injured by gunfire«, according to his GoFundme-page. Despite the fact, that Ryan was »part of a group of around eight from the Leoville and Spiritwood area who travelled to the city for the Route 91 Harvest Festival over the weekend«, not one of them told Ryan’s survival story or gave any details of his gunshot wound. The GoFundme-page has no information regarding his injury nor his recovery, instead we read the following: »We would like to ask the media for privacy and discretion in regards to his condition and going forward as we support Ryan in his recovery.«
So, I am a little puzzled that a GoFundme-page for a wounded victim doesn’t require an official statement from the hospital.
A circular argument can be seen on this GoFundme-page:
»Links are to show that he was legitimately one of the victims since there are so many fake go fund me pages.« Two links to media reports are given: ABC Denver Channel 7 and Fox Denver. But the media outlets must have been informed by the victim or victim’s family or victim’s friends/colleagues, who are the ones setting up the GoFundme-page. And it doesn’t help either, when a page is ›verified‹, because it means only, that the money will be transferred to the fund’s beneficiary, not the person who created it.
More disturbing is the fact, that some reports in mainstream media are based solely on GoFundme-pages and social media updates regarding the gunshot wounds as we can see here:
»According to the GoFundme-site, Kurt Fowler ›was shot and seriously injured‹. People have commented on his Facebook page that he was shot in the leg and his tibia and fibula ›most likely shattered‹.«
Do we know any fake accounts of injured victims?
TV-Channel WUSA9 reported on a severely injured Las Vegas victim saved by a man who was shot dead. Later they retracted the story and stated: »It was information we received from her father, who was told by someone who identified themselves as a hospital employee where his daughter was believed to be receiving treatment. We have since learned this report is false.«
What do you think?
Should we trust the victims‘ stories hook, line and sinker?
Is your answer ›Yes, of course!‹, don’t bother to read further.
Was incident command system (ICS) activated?
What is triage?
Was triage done that night?
Who counted the dead and injured?
Average hospital stay?
How many people were actually shot?
What do we really know?
»When the first responding unit arrives, responders should establish command and begin an overall assessment or size-up. Using an incident command system (ICS) is beneficial.« Source: manual for EMS Providers.
Was ICS activated?
When you read the story of the aftermath, you would think, the shooting took place in the Australian outback, where help is many hours away and you have to care for yourself.
»Over the next 40 minutes or so, Winston and a friend would transport 20 to 30 critically injured people to a hospital in the commandeered truck. ›It was a lot of chaos‹.« [LA Times]
»She recalled seeing a police officer standing next to a car saying a prayer as people clung to his legs.« [NY Daily News]
Strangely enough, the mass casualty incident in Las Vegas is similar to the airshow disaster in Ramstein, Germany, in 1988. Back then, »arriving units did not find a command structure to report to and were forced to participate in uncontrolled evacuation from the scene.« The medical management in Ramstein was »appalling and utterly chaotic.« Almost 30 years later, the same can be said about Las Vegas.
»Ambulances arrived at the festival grounds quickly, but were overwhelmed. Some victims were rushed to hospitals in cars and the backs of pickup trucks. Paramedics’ radio frequencies were so clogged that some used cellphones to call ahead to emergency rooms.« [New York Times]
»How police and medics stormed through the Las Vegas gunfire to save lives: The fire department transported more than 200 people to area hospitals that night and treated victims suffering from gunshot wounds, fractures and trampling injuries from the stampede to escape the gunfire. Some of the injured were wounded further as they were transported out. In some cases, those escaping loaded the most-injured person in a group into a truck or car first because the individual could not move. But then other people would pile on top of that person to get out of the area. Geeb and his team at one point helped 10 people who had crammed into a compact car. People with gunshot wounds appeared at various hotels.« [Chicago Tribune]
Ashley Mullany, a News 7 reporter, who was on the Las Vegas Strip, told the audience live on TV at 12:01 a.m. [the shooting stopped at 10:15 p.m.], that »dozens of ambulances lined here … with paramedics that are rolled on standby waiting to go in that country music festival.«
»Hostage and active shooter scenario present unique challenges. Involvement of law enforcement is essential. Providers‘ personal safety always takes priority. EMS may be asked to stage and stand by for additional instructions. If providers are in a secure area, they should focus on caring for patients and not be hindered by whatever else is happening. If possible, the preservation of evidence will be appreciated. The first-arriving providers to a shooting will need to start triage. This process can be difficult even for veteran providers. Patient access, availability of resources, communication effectiveness and the ability to conduct accurate initial assessments are just some of the challenges.« [source: EMSworld]
But if we read an article of The Republic/azcentral.com which explains what happened in the Sunrise Hospital, we get a very different picture:
»A radio used to alert the Sunrise hospital to incoming casualties was blaring. Dr. Menes strained to understand. He heard someone say, Prepare for a mass casualty incident.
›Hey, is this real?‹ Menes asked, turning to a police officer passing through the emergency room. Maybe it was another drill meant to look real, with fake blood and screaming actors. Or one more false alarm, one more night Sunrise Hospital prepared for a panic that never arrived
›Yeah, man,‹ the officer replied.«
I don’t think that’s the way it works in real life. The whole story sounds more like a scene from one of these Hollywood disaster movies. Normally, there are well defined procedures to follow. Hearsay and asking some stranger, what’s real and what’s not, is not the way to go. Let’s go back in time, to the IBM shooting in 1982, to see, how it is done:
»There was a working plan, a written standard operational procedure, that was put into effect at the time of the incident. The written program was there. The dispatcher simply hat to pull out a sheet of paper and follow it.«
What is triage?
»Triage identifies the most severely injured patients with the greatest chance of surviving. … Patients with severe injuries that are less life-threatening should be cared for and transported first.«
Dr. Arie L. Durst explains the principles of triage which »distinguish between
1 – Dead or alive – the dead will be transferred to the morgue;
2 – Severely wounded whose chance to survive the transportation and further treatment are small – to be evacuated last;
3 – Severe injuries that need immediate resuscitation on the spot with a good chance to survive in the hospital – to be evacuated first;
4 – Lightly injured that need only minor medical support may be sent home after primary care or later transferred to a small hospital designed to take care of such patients.
The casualties are evacuated according to the type of injury and place available in each hospital.«
So, was triage done on that night?
First of all, do we know the Triage Unit Leader of that incident? Was there a Triage Unit Leader at all? Did we see any triage tags, which are color coded so that the triage category can be seen at some distance. On page SM 6-9 you can find a chart how ‚START‘-triage works. Regarding the Las Vegas shooting I couldn’t find any indication that triage was done that night. On the contrary if you believe the accounts of some of the eyewitnesses:
One victim, who stayed on the phone with his wife for 52 minutes after he was shot, refused to get on the ambulance because he knew others needed it more than him.
Another victim, who was shot in the abdomen said, that his »journey to the ER wasn’t orthodox or even legal, but he was the third person on an operating table.«
CNN told the story of an off-duty firefighter: »When he gets back to the medical tent, there are people everywhere — some injured, some just willing to help. Some had little to no medical training; others were first responders or medical professionals. Of the three people he is triaging …« which means, he provided first responder care.
»She wanted to wait for paramedics; the stranger told her, correctly, that they wouldn’t be able to reach victims as long as the gunman was spraying the concert area with bullets.«
One eyewitness wrote that »someone ran up the stage stating they had an ambulance outside and were looking for wounded people to take there.«
»Dr. Menes [from Sunrise hospital] decided he would stand in front of the hospital, where the life-and-death decisions would be made.«
Who counted the dead and injured?
Normally, if ICS is activated, »all treatment-related functions are grouped under the Medical Group/Division Supervisor« (FEMA). Regarding the Las Vegas Shooting I couldn’t find any reporting that ICS or MCI response action plan was actually activated. The ongoing chaos regarding the reported numbers of dead and injured people and the lack of an Information Officer (IO) are indications of that.
Here is the timeline how the death toll unfolded
11:32 p.m. Multiple victims hospitalized [@AP]
11:39 p.m. Source(?): >20 injured [Wiki]
11:58 p.m. UMC: >2 dead, 24 injured (12 critical) [@AP]
01.39 a.m. Sheriff: >20 dead, >100 injured [@AP]
03:31 a.m. Sheriff: >50 dead, >200 injured [@AP]
06:04 a.m. Clark County: 50 dead, 406 inj. in hospitals [@AP]
08:41 a.m. Sheriff: 58 dead, 515 injured [@AP]
21:05 p.m. Sheriff: 59 dead, 527 injured [@AP]
This timeline is very bizarre!
We have to keep in mind that the shooting ended at 10:15 p.m., that means, at around 11:15 p.m. the severely wounded (with a good chance to survive in the hospital) should have been taken care of. It’s the Golden Hour. After that, the chance to survive gunshot wound(s) will be slimmer by the minute.
See the short documentaries The Golden Hour: Treating Trauma [»Troubleshooting ABC: Airway, breathing, circulation.«] or Level 1 Trauma: When Seconds count [»When your lung collapses you die in minutes.«] or Level One Trauma [»Your survival rate increases by 25 % if you’re going to a Trauma Center vs. hospital with no Trauma Center.«]
Note how many physicians, surgeons and nurses are needed to stabilize only one wounded soldier in a combat hospital in Afghanistan.
When we read the story what happened on that night in two Las Vegas hospitals, it doesn’t add up; the UMC, which is the only level 1 trauma center in Vegas received overall 104 patients, Sunrise Hospital 180 – but what about the rest of almost 250 patients, some with gunshot wounds? Where did the
towers patients go? Almost all of the eyewitness accounts are mentioning UMC and Sunrise only.
If you watch the above mentioned documentaries, you get the impression that there is no way, that a Trauma Center (or hospital) could lose track of incoming patients. But in Las Vegas, more than 200 minutes after the shooting ended (01:39 a.m.), approx. 400 injured people are in limbo. Compare that to the botched rescue operation in Ramstein 30 years ago and you know, something is wrong here: »96 minutes after the crash, the scene had been cleared of [ca. 500] casualties.«
2 days after the shooting a nurse from the UMC said: »There was chaos in here. There was one to two hundred people [sic!] in the trauma unit. Patients were everywhere.« We learn from her that 99 % of the victims had gunshot wounds (UMC: 104 patients/103 gunshot wounds and Sunrise: 180/124).
3 days after the shooting the Las Vegas Review Journal tried to give an overview regarding the numbers of injured and discharged patients. Without an IO or Medical Group Supervisor the numbers are all over the place:
critical condition: 58 patients (according to 12 different hospitals; UMC »received more wounded who were transferred from other hospitals«)
discharged: 317 patients (according to the Police Dept)
Six Valley Health Hospitals received 229 patients, three St. Rose hospitals treated 71 victims and Southern Hills treated and released 20 patients.
Dr. Jeffrey Davidson, chief medical doctor in the emergency department at Valley Hospital discussed his experience working in the E.R. on that night. Strangely enough, he was notified by his office director who told him »that there was a shooting, probably a mass shooting and that we were initiating a so called mass casualty incident or disaster drill.«
13 days after the shooting, Sheriff Lombardo told the press: »We used 17 separate medical facilities to accommodate the injured … today’s numbers are: 546 reported injuries, 501 of those have been discharged; 45 are still hospitalized and some in critical condition.« This means that 13 patients which were in critical condition 10 days ago were already discharged.
22 days after the shooting the LV Review Journal stated, that »eight people were still in Las Vegas area hospitals on Monday as a result of injuries sustained in the mass shooting at the Route 91 Harvest Festival shooting, four of whom were in critical condition.« That means that 538 patients have been discharged.
30 days after the shooting The Fresno Bee checked with several Las Vegas hospitals: With Jessica Milnam, »only two other shooting victims are hospitalized.«
Average hospital stay?
My roughly estimation for the average hospital stay of 441 Las Vegas casualties with gunshot wounds (see archive of gunviolence.org) is 6 to 7 days. Please note that there is no official record concerning the actual patients with gunshot wounds, but I’ve taken the number 441 for granted.
»The average hospital stay for wounded US Rangers in the battle of Mogadishu, Oct. 1993 – this was the largest and most recent urban battle involving United States ground forces since the Vietnam War with 125 combat casualties – was 22 days.«
»Gunshot wounds, especially when associated with open fractures or nerve and vessel damage, were the most morbid injuries, requiring the longest hospital stays and recuperation periods.«
Source: United States Army Rangers in Somalia: An Analysis of Combat Casualties on an Urban Battlefield.
How many people were actually shot?
If we believe the accounts of the medical staff, UMC received 103 and Sunrise Hospital 124 victims with gunshot wounds, totaling 227.
Gunviolence Archive states 441 victims with gunshot wounds but the downloadable PDF only lists 114 victims with their full names and 22 victims without names. These 114 entries rely solely on mainstream media articles which are often times not accurate. As mentioned before, the press has no easy way to verify a gunshot wound which a victim supposedly sustained.
Five victims were listed in the archive but I couldn’t find any media reports that they were shot: Al Etcheber, Angel Carmona, Malinda Bainbridge, Nikki Barthal, Ashley Quidocho. In five instances, no details regarding gunshot wounds were given in the media: Mike Blair, Donny Barthal, John Blumeyer, Bobby Parks, Brad Powers. In nine instances, the gunshot wounds were minor (i.e.: graze): Bobby Eardley, Chris Eyer, Mike Hesselton, Andrew Kampe, Steve Keys, Lisa Lewan, Jeff Steffens, Bruce Ure, Arpil Vasquez.
23ABC News published a »list of all those from Kern County who attended the concert and their current conditions, shared by friends or family.« The list states for example a ‚Mike Blair‘ as ’shot, recovering,‘ but I couldn’t find any trace of him on the web regarding Las Vegas. The same holds true for Michelle Lehman (’shot in foot‘) and Donny Barthal (’shot, but okay‘). I would assume, the list is hearsay.
What do we really know?
More than one month after the (allegedly) deadliest mass shooting in the history of the United States, we still don’t know the fundamentals of the crime: How many people were actually hit by which kind of bullet fired from which type of rifle and who received which kind of wound. We still don’t know how many shots were actually fired? Why not count the shell casings in the hotel room? Or did the FBI already ship the shell casings to China?
Don’t dare to question our stories!
»As a citizen I must ask: What is true? What is false?«
If you question some of the survivor stories, you are a conspiracy nut. Mainstream and alternative media (see Guardian, Newsweek, Global News, alternet.org or BBC) try hard to convince the gullible and sensitive people that these conspiracy theorists and hoaxers are a danger to society and have to be silenced or else. Media is trying to stir the pot, so to speak. Watch the BBC clip for a good laugh: The expert reads a comment from »someone on the web« and then tells the audience that »this is conclusive evidence that it happened.« But don’t get me wrong. If there are people out there that make death threats to victims, that has to be taken serious. But that doesn’t mean, all truthers or skeptics are in on this. The media want to discredit the truth community. That’s all there is. And don’t forget: it’s the world wide web – you can never know for sure who’s on the other side of the posting. Remember the case of the ‚Australian IS jihadist‘ Joshua Goldberg in 2015?
Until now, I thought we are living in a democracy, where everyone has the right to speak the unthinkable. Good ol‘ George Bush Jr. told the world in 2001, who the terrorists and evildoers are:
»They hate our freedoms: our freedom of religion, our freedom of speech, our freedom to vote and assemble and disagree with each other.«
I guess the times they are a changin‘.
Was the Las Vegas shooting a hoax? A mock drill going live? A false flag? A Psy-Op? A black operation by NATO? An inside job? A terror attack? Was it done by a lone gunman? By multiple shooters with handguns, shotguns or BBs? By helicopters? By a terrorist group? By a sound stage? By Hollywood?
Whatever the answer might be, the most important point is to fight censorship on the web and in the media. If we allow authorities, media and all the social-media-Zuckerbergs to define what’s right and what’s wrong and who’s allowed to opine and who’s not then we open the door to Room 101, Ministry of Love.
What you should know about …
Fatality rate of gunshot wounds
Care under fire (CUF)
Hemorrhage control (direct pressure)
Hemorrhage control (tourniquet)
Airway Obstruction, Pneumothorax and Sucking Chest Wound
Taking an injured person to the hospital
»Facts do not cease to exist because they are ignored.« Aldous Huxley
Fatality rate of gunshot wounds
»Gunshot wounds to the head are the most lethal of all firearm injuries. It is estimated they have a fatality rate greater than 90%. Those to the myocardium [muscle tissue of the heart] have fatality rates reaching 80%. Intra-abdominal injuries from gunshot wounds tend to involve the small bowel (50%), colon (40%), liver (30%) and abdominal vascular structures (25%). If two or more gunshot wounds are present, assume substantial internal damage. This is important to note, as patients with combined intrathoracic and intra-abdominal injuries have a greater chance of dying.« Source: EMSworld
Care under fire (CUF)
»Care under fire (CUF) is a situation during active combat where both the casualty and the care provider are in danger from enemy fire, may or may not be behind adequate cover and may need to contribute to the firefight. It is emphasized that only 2 medical treatments are appropriate during this phase:
- tourniquet use for massive hemorrhage
- the recovery position for airway obstruction.
Source: Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) in the Canadian Forces: lessons learned from the Afghan war (article)
Hemorrhage Control (direct pressure)
»Hemostatic dressings should be applied with at least 3 minutes of direct pressure. Each dressing works differently, so if one fails to control bleeding, it may be removed and a fresh dressing of the same type or a different type applied.« Source: Defense Health Agency TCCC CUF Hemorrhage Control
Hemorrhage Control (tourniquet)
»We indicate that the use of a tourniquet by untrained rescuers can easily result in more harm than good. For the lay rescuer, remember: always apply targeted, direct external pressure as the first line of care for bleeding. Only when this fails should a tourniquet be applied.«
»For a tourniquet, you need a windlass to wind round and tighten the tourniquet. Is the tourniquet applied too loosely this can causing bleeding to worsen. Commercially available tourniquets such as the CAT are recommended over one improvised out of found materials.«
»Place a tourniquet approximately two inches from the wound if able. Record the time of application for EMS; write it on the limb itself or in close proximity. If EMS is significantly delayed, cooling the limb with ice/cold packs (or exposing it to a cold environment) may help reduce tissue damage.«
»A leather belt is unsuitable for a tourniquet as it is too tough to use with a windlass; you will be unable to provide sufficient force by hand to tighten it sufficiently to provide enough pressure to stop the blood flow.«
»Tourniquet application will cause some pain. Tourniquets hurt when applied effectively. Manage pain per TCCC Guidelines. After any tourniquet application monitor casualty closely to ensure that tourniquet remains tight and that bleeding remains controlled. Improvised tourniquets can be ineffective.«
»The median time of 10 minutes for tourniquet application compared favorably with Lakstein et al’s 15 minutes. But be aware that casualties with complete femoral artery and vein disruption can bleed to death in as little as 3 minutes.«
»If there is no traumatic amputation, a distal pulse should be checked. If bleeding persists or a distal pulse is still present, consider additional tightening of the tourniquet or the use of a second tourniquet side-by-side with the first to eliminate both bleeding and the distal pulse. Although a tourniquet may stop the active bleeding, it also prevents venous blood from returning to the heart. If arterial blood continues to flow past the tourniquet, pressure can build up distally in the limb and create a compartment syndrome. This is why the tourniquet should be tightened until there is no longer a distal pulse – to minimize the chance of harm from a developing compartment syndrome.«
See this graphic instruction video, how a tourniquet is correctly applied.
Source: Defense Health Agency
TCCC CUF Hemorrhage Control
Airway Obstruction, Pneumothorax and Sucking Chest Wound
»Airway obstruction is second most common cause of potentially preventable deaths on battlefield. Airway management for casualty with/without airway obstruction:
- Chin lift or jaw thrust maneuver
- Nasopharyngeal airway
- Allow casualty to assume any position that best protects the airway, to include sitting up;
- Place unconscious casualty in the recovery position which helps to protect against vomiting and aspiration.«
»Tension Pneumothorax is a very common cause of preventable death. It may occur with entry wounds in the abdomen, shoulder or neck. Penetrating trauma such as a gunshot wound may also cause it. A tension pneumothorax can cause respiratory distress and shock and it can kill the victim. Treatment is needle decompression, to let trapped air escape.« A good visualization of this gunshot wound can be seen in the movie Three Kings (1999).
»A Sucking Chest Wound usually takes hole in chest the size of a nickel or bigger for this to occur. All open and/or sucking chest wounds should be treated by immediately applying a vented chest seal to cover the defect. If a vented chest seal is not available, use a non-vented chest seal. Monitor the casualty for the potential development of a subsequent tension pneumothorax. If the casualty develops increasing hypoxia, respiratory distress, or hypotension and a tension pneumothorax is suspected, treat by burping or removing the dressing or by needle decompression.«
Source: Defense Health Agency
Tactical Field Care (TFC) Airway & Respiration
»We’re not talking about hypothermia in the usual sense, which is dying from cold exposure. We are talking about keeping your blood clotting system working! Casualties in shock are unable to generate body heat effectively. Even a small decrease in body temperature can interfere with blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding to death. Hypothermia is much easier to prevent than to treat! To prevent hypothermia minimize casualty’s exposure to the elements. Replace wet clothing with dry if possible. Get casualty onto insulated surface as soon as possible.«
Source: Defense Health Agency
TCCC TFC Hypothermia
Taking an injured person to the hospital
»At all times during transport, it is important to keep watch to ensure that the patient’s airway is clear, the patient is breathing (a clear airway does not necessarily mean that the patient is breathing), and that the patient’s pulse can be felt. Being able to feel the pulse means that the heart is beating. While in the vehicle, try to keep the injured limb from touching the floor of the vehicle. Vehicle bumps are easily transmitted from the floor, and this hurts the patient more.«
»What is important is a rigid flat surface which keeps the spine stable and which allows resuscitation to be carried out. While shifting, the patient’s back, neck and airway have to be protected from further injury.« Source: WHO
The victims‘ stories in alphabetical order
Now, let’s take a closer look at some of these miracles, unbelievable eyewitness accounts and amazing recoveries from (hollow point, mind you) rifle gunshot wounds, unheard-of in the history of gun violence. One day you are shot in the leg, the next day, you are able to give a TV interview, outside the hospital, standing without crutches or any sign of help or pain.
George Orwell reflects his whole experience of being hit by a bullet in the neck; excerpt from his book Homage to Catalonia
»Roughly speaking it was the sensation of being at the center of an explosion. There seemed to be a loud bang and a blinding flash of light all round me, and I felt a tremendous shock — no pain, only a violent shock, such as you get from an electric terminal; with it a sense of utter weakness, a feeling of being stricken and shriveled up to nothing. I knew immediately that I was hit. The next moment my knees crumpled up and I was falling, my head hitting the ground with a violent bang which, to my relief, did not hurt. I had a numb, dazed feeling, a consciousness of being very badly hurt, but no pain in the ordinary sense. … They had just got me on to the stretcher when my paralyzed right arm came to life and began hurting damnably. But all the while the pain in my arm was diabolical, making me swear and then try not to swear, because every time I breathed too hard the blood bubbled out of my mouth … I was dopey from morphine but still in great pain, practically unable to move and swallowing blood constantly.«
Carmen Alegria was shot in the knee. »I was hit … I said, we have to run. So we got up and we ran to the east side … we just ran … we ran for cover.« »A military veteran drove Carmen and her friend Angelica Soto to the hospital in the back of a pickup truck. The veteran picked up seven others along the way. The entire back of the pickup was filled with people who were shot, including a woman who was hit in the eye.« Carmen’s interview is hard to watch. There is a picture of her bandaged knee, but no update regarding her recovery.
Where is the bullet?
Jake Andersen »was shot through and through the right forearm. He scrambled to find his fiancée … A concert venue staff member took him to a medical tent, where a paramedic [!] put a tourniquet on his arm and bandaged it. [Later] a surgeon examined Jake and told him that he was fortunate. The bullet had passed through his arm but did not shatter any bones or damage nerves. He won’t require surgery, and after his wound heals, his arm should work just fine.« The Daily Iowa wrote later: »On Oct. 18, he had surgery to remove bullets that had hit his arm. He should make a full recovery after physical therapy.« I guess somebody didn’t get the memo.
Arthur Andrade Jr, according to his father, was »shot in the stomach, through the large intestines and out the side … Junior got up, ran, and somehow made it to an ambulance.« He was »rushed into emergency surgery« and »was moving toward a full recovery.« 4 days later he can be seen sitting on a chair.
Jody Ansell was shot through and through the right arm. »›I was bleeding so badly, everywhere, on my arm, it was going down my legs‹. Two women came to her rescue. ›The one girl took off her shirt, and she wrapped my arm to try and stop the bleeding. And I was bleeding all over her car, and she didn’t care‹. Ansell said the woman stayed with her until she was taken to hospital from a helicopter hanger area, hours later.« The »bullet had an entry and exit point in her arm, which means it passed right through and she doesn’t need major surgery. X-rays show there are no breaks to any bones, she said.« Two days later, Jody was released from hospital.
Alexis Arias, a teacher, was »shot in the upper thigh and her pelvis was cracked. Her husband applied pressure to the wound and they ran for cover; crawled under the bleachers. After three weeks away from her students, Arias finally found herself back inside her classroom.« The bullet, which is near her tailbone, is still inside her body.
Phil Aurich was shot in the back. »He had some fairly serious organ damage. They had to remove his spleen, part of his colon, a ruptured diaphragm, which collapsed a lung and a fractured rib. One week later Phil was reunited with his children.« In a picture you can see him sitting on a chair, his two kids on his lap.
Kristin Babik was shot »in the back near her right shoulder blade. [The bullet] broke a rib and pierced her lung before stopping between two vertebrae. She ran for her life, searching for an exit to safety. She started coughing up blood soon after. Kristin said she and her friends made it to the Desert Rose Resort [a 7 minute walk away] before she collapsed. The adrenaline was wearing off, and blood was filling her lung. An ambulance took Kristin to UMC for treatment.« Tuesday, from her hospital bed, Kristin shared her story first with Action News Jax. Wednesday, she was interviewed by CBS This Morning. »After several days of recovery and physical therapy, she returned home — 8 days after she was shot. Doctors told her she was lucky not to be paralyzed, and she is still regaining her ability to walk.«
Gotta see it to believe it
Natalia Baca was shot in the shoulder. The bullet punctured her lung. About 32 hours later she gave a TV interview. Natalia made an »incredible recovery« and was honored – together with her twin sister Natalia – at homecoming six days later. The Inside-Edition interview she gave in the hospital together with her sister is priceless.
Gianna Baca was shot »in the butt, with the bullet exiting near her hip.« Almost 32 hours later she is sitting on her butt in a chair for a TV interview and is pushing her hip forward to show the wound. »She was back home after being released Monday.« The Inside-Edition interview she gave in the hospital together with her sister is priceless.
Jordanne Barr »was shot once in the arm and once in the back. She will have to go through rehabilitation because she has nerve damage in her arm.« 23ABC News stated: »Barr was shot in the arm, the bullet traveled to her back, and is said to be recovering.« On Nov 7, a report on local TV said, »Barr was shot in the arm and near her hip.« We can see Jordanne happily looking forward to her marriage, walking and standing beside her lifesaver and future husband.
Autumn Bignami, according to a family friend, was »shot in the back and face and suffered injuries to the lungs and liver.« I couldn’t find any details about her transfer to the hospital, but I would call her survival miraculous. Her aunt wrote on facebook, that »Autmn is able to speak but are still unable to stop bleeding of the jaw.« On the GoFundme-page we read an update: »They are expecting to be in the Vegas Hospital for 2 weeks or so.« Next update: »They performed surgery to fix her thumb which was an open wound. Turns out she was shot in her thumb as well. Her jaw is shattered into little pieces, so it’s kind of a messy surgery, but the doctor said, she will make a full recovery … but long road of rehab.« Please »refrain from sending things or contacting them at or through the hospital.« Her husband Frank was shot in the wrist, but no details about his condition. You can order shirts for ‚Team Bignami‘.
Melinda Brockie was »shot through the right side of her face through her cheek, according to her cousin.« The GoFundme-page states that »she suffered major damage to her whole bottom jaw/mandible [and that she was] transported to Seattle via airmedic on October 10, 2017.« The GoFundme-page doesn’t mention her homecoming on October 24. She can be seen in a videoclip.
Dustin Burkhardt was shot in the leg. »He had a bullet explode into shrapnel in his tigh,« says the GoFundme-page. »Almost immediately after being shot, he picked up the phone and called his wife. Dustin continued to stay on the phone (for 52 minutes) with his wife as medics attempted to treat him. He is planning to return to his job as Deejay six days later.«
Clint Burton was shot in the thigh. Someone applied a tourniquet to the leg. His mother told the media the next day [Oct 2]: »The bullet is still in his leg, I think because there were so many people injured that they haven’t gotten to it yet. I don’t know if it will stay there permanently. They told him he could go home if he could stand and walk, but he couldn’t, so they kept him in the hospital overnight. He lost a lot of blood.« Clint was visited by President Trump and Dr. Phil. He returned home in the early morning of October 5.
Justin Burton was shot twice in the back. He realized, that the shots were coming from a distance. He told his friends: »We gotta get movin‘, we have to get out of here.« »I was hit again as we were running.« Two days later he was released from hospital. Both bullets are still inside the body. Justin had some appearances on TV.
Media loves this story
Nick Campbell, born on 9/11, who shielded his high school sweetheart, took literally the bullet for her and hid under a dead body. »The bullet went through his shoulder, cracked two ribs and collapsed his lung. He was losing a third of his blood [A stranger stopped his bleeding with the strings of his backpack]. Nick, who is believed to be the youngest victim, was immediately seen by medical personnel in a hallway. It was determined he needed a tube inserted into his chest to expand his lungs and help with breathing, which he says was the most painful part of the process — even worse than being shot. ›They cut me open with the scalpel. No pain medicine,‹ he said. ›I asked the guy how he did it. He said he put his whole hand (in my chest).‹ He didn’t require surgery because the bullet hit his rib and shattered. He hopes to be released by Friday [5 days after he was shot] and is expected to make a full physical recovery.« CBS reported, that Nick was shot in the chest and in the shoulder. ABCs screen capture says ›shot in the arm‹ and they let the viewer know that Nick hopes to be playing basketball next month.
Jesus Campos, despite suffering a gunshot wound to his thigh, drove hundreds of miles one week after the shooting. Even the mainstream media can’t explain the fast recovery of the most important eyewitness of the event.
Jessica Carey was shot in the leg. Her GoFundme-page reads »I’m doing great. Just keeping my head up. I was shot in the leg which went into my pelvic area but I am expected to make a full recovery. Get to rest in this amazing hospital bed for a couple days. I thank the young guy and gal that shoved me into the back seat of their truck with blood gushing every where and got me to the hospital!!!« No updates. No media coverage. Very few donations. Odd.
Elizabeth Carvalho was »shot in the foot« but strangers helped her and together »they ran with her, taking her to the safety of their hotel room.«
Michael Caster was shot »through the back, through the lungs and into his spine.« On his GoFundme-page, we read: »Michael said he was shot and could not feel his legs. His girlfriend was screaming for help and never left his site, while putting pressure on his bullet opening to the left lung. She flagged down more people who helped her carry him to the street and put him in the trunk of a random truck. They rushed him to Sunrise hospital and immediately put in a chest tube to his lung, because it was full of blood. He was taken to emergent surgery and he had part of his lung removed; the bullet left fragments in his spine and he has no feeling from the belly button down. Doctors said he might never walk again.« Three days after he was critically wounded, he gave a TV interview in the hospital.
Savanna Chasco was shot in the back as she was lying on the ground. Friends »picked me up and pulled me to a fence outside the concert venue. Then we ran into MGM [a 10 minute walk away], then we heard more rounds inside, so we ran back out.« With the bullet still inside the body — »I was very fortunate because I stopped the bullet in my back« — Savanna was discharged from hospital 5 hours after she was wounded. Hilarious her giggling in a TV interview, when she remembered a guy in the ambulance who was shot in his »butt cheek«. The ambulance was so crowded, Savanna had to lay on him. Her interview with ABC is hard to watch.
Jeffrey Christerson was shot in the jaw. He told KPIX 5 by phone three days later: »It went through my ear and entered right behind my jaw and then traveled down to above, a few inches above my collar bone.« He told KSBW: ›The worst thing was the sound. It was complete insanity. After I got hit, I went into shock.‹ Doctors described his bullet wound as ‚miraculous‘, because it didn’t hit any major arteries.« The bullet is still lodged inside. Local news quote Jeffrey’s girlfriend, that he »suffered a minor gunshot wound in his neck. They drove from Las Vegas to Irvine, Calif. to get medical help.«
Where is the bullet?
Michaela Clark was shot in the back. A friend of hers told local TV: »Some stranger picked her up and put her over his shoulder and found a car and put her underneath the car for coverage. He laid there with her just for protection and didn’t leave. He got her medical help and got her in an ambulance. The bullet was removed in surgery Monday, and she is stable. But now, (two days later) she is still bleeding heavily.« No details of the gunshot wound is given on her GoFundme-page. 25 days after she was shot we can see her and Amber Smith on the talk show The Doctors. Surprisingly, we learn that the bullet is still inside the body. Very hard to watch.
Officer Casey Clarkson felt nothing as he was shot. His partner told him: »›you’re bleeding from the neck.‹ and put pressure on the wound. [Later] they made their way to the concert’s medical tent, where a nurse told him the blood was not squirting out, but rather dribbling. The injury, a wound about the size of a nickel, was sewn up with a few stitches. He said he still does not know if it came from a bullet or shrapnel.«
Summer Clyburn was hit »just under her right shoulder blade.« Two days later, a »picture emerged on Facebook of the wounded Summer, whose injury is not life-threatening, walking around the hospital with her three-month-old daughter in her arms.« This article states that »she suffered a graze wound.«
Allison Crute was shot in the arm. Her GoFundme-page says that she »suffered a direct shot to her radius, shattering it, and multiple bullet fragments need to be removed.« Six days later she was discharged from the hospital. A picture shows the ›discharge ceremony‹. Update on Oct 20: »Allison has multiple surgeries and imaging at an out of state facility with nearly week long stay.«
Craig Cunneen was shot in the leg. With his wife Debbie beside him he told the British Daily Mail via Skype days later from their Californian home: »It felt something bit me. ›I am hit, I am hit‹. My wife looked at me: ›It looks okay, it looks okay‹. I could see the blood in my leg. … We ran to the parking lot … we climbed over a fence. … I helped a man in an electric wheelchair over the fence.« No other media outlet reported on that couple.
Lee Dorchak was shot through and through the leg. Good Samaritans cut his pants off and took his boot off and put a belt around his leg to stop the bleeding. [a leather belt is unsuitable for a tourniquet] They stayed with him until he was in the EMS. Doctors didn’t even stitch up his wounds!
She was shot four times
Samantha Faranda was shot three times, twice in the arm and once in her right side. Three days later she gave an interview by telephone from Sunrise Hospital: »My arm went numb and my wrist was just limp. I shattered a bone in my arm.« One of the two GoFundme-pages reads: »all of the gunshot wounds missed vital organs. One broke a bone and she had surgery last night getting a titanium plate & screws.« She was visited by Anderson Cooper in the hosptial. The picture of her with him is literally all smiles. 5 days after she was shot multiple times, she was discharged from hospital. Later she gave another interview by phone. The article stated that »she was hit twice in the forearm, which shattered her wrist and broke the main bone in her forearm; she was also shot once in the upper arm and once under her right breast near her ribs.« It seems, she was shot four times. Hard to imagine.
Melissa Fierro was hit in the shoulder. »It felt like a paint ball exploded on her shoulder. The bullet had shattered her scapula. The doctor told her that removing the bullet might cause more damage than leaving it in. Fierro was released from the hospital at about 6 a.m. Monday, October 2.«
»Totally unbelievable …«
Tina Frost was shot in the forehead. It is not clear, whether the bullet entered her forehead or went into her eye, but we know that she was conscious after she had been struck. Despite Tina’s grave head injury, some Good Samaritans were carrying her across the field, put her with others in the back of a pick up truck and drove to the hospital. The surgery took three hours and was extremely delicate. The surgeon called her survival ‚miraculous‘.« Her mother wrote on Tina’s GoFundme-page Oct 2:
»Tina is out of surgery and her vitals are stable. They removed her right eye, where the bullet was lodged, and there is an implant there now to keep the space open. She has sight in her left eye but will never see from the right again. They took out a bone from her forehead to allow the brain room to swell, that will stay out for a few months. She’s in a coma and on a ventilator, she cannot breathe on her own. She’s critically stable in ICU for at least a week.« A month after Tina was shot, she was moved out of ICU. She »is eating solid food, and is even playing soccer with her father in the hospital hallways.« On Nov 4 she can be seen in a CNN TV report – the insert reads: ›Las Vegas shooting making a miraculous recovery‹. »Totally unbelievable that it’s only been a month and she has made such an unbelievable progress,« a friend of hers told CNN’s Erin Burnett. »How amazed is her family, are you, by this miracle,« Burnett asked.
Elle Gargano »sustained a gunshot injury to the back of her head. Thankfully, an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) was nearby. Elle was rushed [by whom/with what?] to a nearby hospital, where she had surgery early Monday morning.« Update on her GoFundme-page: »Elle, a ‚miracle child‘, was discharged (22 days after she was shot) from the hospital! She is staying in Vegas until her next surgery, but she is expected to return to California soon afterwards.« The final surgery in early November will »replace the bone plate that had to be removed to reduce potential brain damage from swelling.«
A law suite was filed
Paige Gasper was shot »on the right side.« Despite the fact that she was in ICU she talked to CBS Sacramento by phone the very next day. Ten days after she was shot she filed a law suite against the MGM Resorts International etc. In the Complaint we can read the very details of her experience:
»The bullet entered her right underarm, traversed right breast tissue, shattered ribs and lacerated her liver before exiting out her right side. She was rendered physically incapacitated as a result of her injuries, and was assisted by friends in an attempt to escape further gunshots, only to have the crowd of people surrounding her trample her as they tried to flee the concert venue. She was eventually rescued by a Good Samaritan who helped her take cover behind a metal trash dumpster on the concert venue grounds. Paige was eventually led into the street by another Good Samaritan, where she was placed in a Good Samaritan’s truck along with other injured people and transported to Spring Valley Hospital [no Level 1 Trauma, mind you] where she was treated for her injuries. She was the only survivor amongst the passengers in the Good Samaritan’s truck.«
Paige told CBS, that she never lost consciousness.
Kim Gervais was shot in the back. »Doctors are unable to remove the (›fragmenting‹?) bullet, because it ended up so close to her (›C6‹?) spine. It appears as though Kim is now a quadriplegic.« Kim’s sister explained, how she was saved: »[A couple] carried her sister out of the venue, flagged down a passing driver and took her to the hospital.«
Dr. Hubbard states: »Remember the spine is also included in the back of the chest. Be very careful about movement of these victims. You want to keep them as still as possible and not damage the spinal cord.«
The New York Times wrote a lenghty article about Kim and her terrible condition, but the author didn’t mention the problematic transport to the hospital and didn’t give any details regarding her gunshot wound.
Rylie Golgart was shot in the lower back. The Las Vegas RJ wrote that her »father and an off-duty Clark County firefighter were able to get her on a backboard, into her father’s truck and to a hospital.« According to CBS, Off-duty Clark County firefighter Travis Haldeman saved Rylie, he stayed and rode with her to the hospital. The article doesn’t mention Rylie’s father. Her GoFundme-page was set up on Oct 2, the first media coverage appeared on Oct 4. I couldn’t find any pictures or interviews with Rylie. No actual pictures on her facebook page either. Very curious that the Las Vegas RJ didn’t get any newer information regarding Rylie’s condition one month later. The article, which was published Nov 2 copied more or less the GoFundme-page from Oct 2: »The bullet fragmented in her L4 vertebrae, and she has undergone emergency surgery as the family reviews options from leading neurosurgeons.«
Michael Gracia was shot in the temple/head. »His mom calls it a miracle.« He »made swift progress in his recovery after his devastating injury, steadily showing signs of improvement just days after he sustained the wound. He was able to get out of his hospital bed and walk by Wednesday. He was flown from Las Vegas to Bracket Field in La Verne Friday.« His girlfriend Summer Clyburn suffered a graze wound. I couldn’t find any details about his gunshot wound on his GoFundme-page, nor how he got to the hospital in time.
The pain must be …
Natalie Grumet »was shot in the cheek, shattering her mandible and ripping off a large chunk of flesh. [Someone] put pressure on the gunshot wound. Then she ran to the Tropicana [a 10 minute walk away]. After about 30 minutes someone told the group that it was safe to go outside and that an ambulance was waiting. Without a stretcher, [a Nebraska couple] put Natalie in a rolling office chair and tilted her back, with L. cradling her head. Natalie wanted to talk. She said she was a 10-year breast cancer survivor.« On her facebook community page we learn: »While at the Tropicana, a concert goer and off duty RN started an IV on Natalie using supplies she found in an ambulance.« Four days after Natalie was shot »she was flown home to California for surgery.« Curiously enough the GoFundme-page didn’t mention this transfer. One month later she gave an interview to CBS. »I remember everything,« she said. On her GoFundme-page there are several updates and pictures of her healing process. In update 9/Oct 19 we learn that »For the first time since the incident, I was able to hear Natalie’s sweet little voice.« But her friend Jasara told us on facebook, Oct 4: »When you get a call saying your best friend wants to talk to you on speaker phone when she just had jaw surgery. Just to ask how I was and that she was ok.« Curious. A shrapnel in her hand was removed on Oct 20. Natalie was released from hospital on Oct 21, one day after an emergency surgery and 20 days after she was shot.
Andrew Gudmunson, according to his social media message, was hit by a bullet which entered »on the left side of his abdomen, went through his body, and exited through his right side. Once he was hit, he was unable to walk. Someone got him in a wheelbarrow from one of the vendor stands, pushed him out of the venue to the street, all while shots were still ringing out.« A person in a car drove him to the hospital. He later explained in an interview with FOX: »They made an incision down the middle and they took all my intestines out and they’re lying on a table. They go through them inch by inch and they’re looking for a hole. They find a hole, snip it and stitch it back together. I think I ended up losing forty percent of my small intestine.« On Oct 22, he posted a picture of him, sitting on a bench outside the hospital. No updates so far on his YouCaring-page. 30 days after he was shot he was released from hospital.
Thomas Gunderson was shot through and through his right calf. »A couple girls grabbed me by the legs, dragged me to the side, [one] took her belt off and put a tourniquet on my leg. [remember: a leather belt is unsuitable for a tourniquet] … They were loading us literally in the back of tow trucks. I was laying on somebody I honestly believe didn’t made it.« The next day after he was shot, he gave a TV interview in the hospital and was visited by a guy with a dog, which can be seen in this videoclip. Note the bloody bandage wrapped around his leg. Thomas stood up, when President Trump came to his bedside. He was visited by Dr. Phil.
Jason Hammond was »struck by a bullet in the knee and another that grazed the back of his head.« He was expected to make a quick recovery and get back home to Boise soon.« No updates on his GoFundme-Account. Two pictures show him in the hospital bed.
Tiffany Huizar was shot in the stomach and elbow. She gave a TV interview four days later and recalled, »I looked under my shirt and it was all bloody. I realized that I had been shot in my stomach. I knew I had to keep going. I looked at my elbow and I realized I had also been shot at my elbow.« She stumbled through the carnage and made her way toward a man who had also been shot. The article states that »an EMT arrived soon after and tried to keep her calm before cops took her to the airport fire department, where an ambulance arrived for her minutes later.«
Hard to watch.
7 hours in the OR
Luca Iclodean, part of the bar team at Route 91, was shot in the back. The bullet went through both lungs and scratched one vertebra, according to his mother. Lenea »whose hands are covered in blood, got Luca into a wheelbarrow and rolled him to an ambulance. After seven grueling hours in the operating room [!] doctors told Luca’s parents their son would survive.« His mother, who’s ironically working for the Mandalay Bay Resort, wrote on her facebook page, that the surgeon had to remove 2/3 of Luca’s right lung and he is expected to recover. Five days after he was shot, he can be seen sitting on a chair (note: the pic was shown on Romanian TV which was uploaded on Oct 6). No updates on his GoFundme-page. On Oct. 19 he wrote on his facebook page: »The bullet went through the [beer] trailer door and then into my back. Right behind my heart. Thankfully, the bullet didn’t go straight through to my heart, it somehow went downward and diagonal, it just barely touched a vertebrae and then landed in my right lung. I had surgery and 2/3 of my lung has been removed. I am out of hospital now.«
Alicia Johnston was shot in the lower back. The bullet »went through her tailbone and exited through her front side.« Her husband Nick »picked up his bleeding wife and they ran for their lives, jumping over a fence and dodging bullets in the process. Strangers appeared, one man with a stretcher and another loaded them into his truck, rushing them to a hospital.« Five days after she was shot, she was allowed to fly home. She was rushed to hospital again three days later because »the bullet that went through her body had left behind tiny fragments and one had traveled to her thigh, causing an infection.« She was given antibiotics. We learn from her GoFundme-page that the bullet was »just two inches away« to paralyzing her waist down. She has still shrapnel in her body.
William ‚Billy‘ King was shot in the back. The »bullet ripped straight through his body and exited out his chest. He grabbed his wife Kimberly, just covered up the bullet hole and they ran. The couple dashed into the Tropicana hotel [a 9 minute walk away], but their phones weren’t working inside. A good Samaritan helped Billy keep pressure on the wound and followed them outside. Eventually, they found a Lyft driver willing to take all three of them to Sunrise Hospital. Doctors said it was a ›miracle‹, he survived.« You can see pictures of him and his exit wound in the chest on his GoFundme-page. Three days after he was shot, the Mandalay Bay employee was released from hospital. Mind-boggling.
Mickey Mouse in the hospital
Christina Kitcat was shot through her arm. The splintered bullet penetrated her heart and lungs. A »firefighter/EMT began to apply pressure to the wounds in her chest and under her armpit [! very problematic location].« With two other firefighters they »loaded Christina into a beer cart and ran out of the concert into the street.« She was rushed to hospital in a pick up truck together with other victims of the shooting. Christina »went into (open-heart) surgery on Monday where doctors removed the bullet from her left ventricle, and found shrapnel from the bullet had left four holes in her heart and holes in her lungs … It was a miracle she’d survived, doctors told her family.« The GoFundme-page states that they »repaired the left Brachial (upper arm) artery.« 12 days after she was shot »she took her first steps alongside the Senator of Nevada.« On Oct. 14, »she went home to Los Angeles, where she is receiving in-home care from a full-time nurse«, her mother said. I would recommend to watch this picture to fathom the severity of her gunshot wounds.
Jeffrey Koisher was shot in the leg and the hip. »A bullet had shattered his fibula and another had fragmented when it hit his hip.« According to NBC 7 Jeffrey »was shot once in the leg when he jumped on the woman to protect her. As they both tried to run for cover, he was shot once again when he jumped on her to shield her from gunfire.« Despite his injuries, he was running on his right leg for about 50 yards. Four days later he was released from hospital.
Mike Kordich, a firefighter from San Bernardino was shot in his right arm, while giving a victim several rounds of CPR. In all his media appearances he can be seen wearing a San-Bernardino-Firefighter-beanie. Interesting. According to his GoFundme-page he was released from hospital Oct 5.
Jan Lambourne was shot in the abdomen. The bullet »entered the left side of her abdomen, ripped through her intestines and smashed into her pelvic bone. Calling it an adrenaline rush, she somehow stood up on her broken pelvis and said she ran ›the best I could‹.« Two days later she gave a TV-interview.
Mykenzie Lane was shot in the foot. She checked out of the hospital the next day, »with a bullet still embedded in her left foot« – despite the fact that »gunshot wounds to the foot and ankle can be a devastating injury.«
Scott Lee was shot through and through the thigh. He »returned to Chicago in a wheelchair.« On Oct 4 he was interviewed by The Chicago Tribune. You can see him standing for almost five minutes, answering a lot of questions. He explained, that he had two tourniquets, because the first one didn’t hold. »I am fine,« he said.
Curtis Leoni was shot in the thigh. His girl friend »called for help, wrapping the wound with a tourniquet [!] crafted with the strap of her bag. Several people ultimately carried Leoni to a red pick-up, and he was transported to the hospital along with 10 others.« He was released from hospital five days later and left Las Vegas by plane. You can see him on a picture exiting what seems like a private jet.
Who saved his life?
Matt Lewan was shot in the shoulder. According to his GoFundme-page »the bullet tore through his axilary [sic!] vein and an artery. He had a vein removed from his leg to replace the damaged vein in his chest and his internal bleeding caused his lungs to fill with blood.« I have no idea how someone could survive this gunshot wound without any immediately EMT response. But two days later you can see him lying in a hospital bed giving a thumbs up. A follow up story about him meeting his lifesaver Sheri Slatten seems to be false: »Lewan’s family says that while Sletten was present on the night Lewan was shot, Lewan’s father and a family friend administered the most important lifesaving aid.« Curiously enough, his father is never mentioned in the very few media reports.
Sheriff Lombardo told the touching story of one of his officers, who was shot twice – the bullets went through and through: »He sustained four separate gunshot wounds – when I say separate it means entry and exit, entry wound to his shoulder and through his biceps, into his chest and out of his back.« The officer wanted to return to duty, 13 days later.
Sheldon Mack was shot in the gut and in the arm. The next day he twittered some details of his injuries: »Sustained 2 gunshot wounds, a ruptured colon, and a broken forearm« and gave an interview. He said, »that he was shot in the gut and then nicked again by a bullet and was bleeding badly, so his friend used his belt as a tourniquet [remember: a leather belt is unsuitable for a tourniquet] until he could get to an ambulance.« Sheldon was also interviewed by ABC and CNN some days later. Ten days after he was shot, he returned home on a medivac flight.
Jovanna Calzadillas was shot in the back, the bullet is lodged in her neck. »Doctors initially didn’t believe she would survive.« She was initially on life support. An update on her GoFundme-page Oct 17 states: »She doesn’t respond to any commands just yet.« One week later, she is back home in Arizona.
Don’t play around this wound
Braden Matejka was shot in the back of his head. The police »flagged down a local woman, also a concertgoer, who rushed Braden to the hospital in her vehicle. He was one of the first victims to be treated in the hospital.« Some days later he gave TV interviews, showing entry and exit wound on his head. Local Media first reported that »a bullet was shot through Matejka’s cowboy hat, grazing his head.« The GoFundme-page which Braden did set up on Oct 3 states:
»I took a bullet in the back of the head as my story will show you. … As soon as we started running again I hit the ground full sprint on my face, it felt as if someone hit me with a sledge hammer in the back of the head. Blood spurting from the hole in which I had been shot. … I was rushed into the OR [operating room] and had my skull looked at. They are keeping me till tomorrow or the next day to make sure that my brain has stopped bleeding.«
Despite a seemingly severe wound to the head, there is no sign that Braden’s hair was shaved in the OR by the medical team to locate entry and exit wound. (»Scalp wounds are best evaluated after trimming hair, either with scissors or clippers«, says this medical treatise). Five days later, he was allowed to leave the hospital but »due to the brain swelling and skull injuries he sustained, he is not allowed to fly.« As more and more people began to question this ›survivor‹ story, mainstream media was trying hard to convince everyone, that Braden’s statements were absolutely accurate and true despite the lack of hard evidence.
Braden shouldn’t play around this injury. In this military study we learn, that a minor wound to the head has to be careful examined:
»The ranger who developed a brain abscess after being struck in the forehead with the small fragment [He developed an intracerebral abscess and recovered fully after a craniotomy, antibiotic therapy, and a 2-month hospitalization] highlights two important points concerning combat-related penetrating head injuries. First, patients can initially present with a normal neurologic examination and innocuous-appearing injuries. Carey describes a similar patient, injured during Operation Desert Storm with ›a small fragment wound to the brain who was talking on hospital admission‹. All wounds in proximity to major structures should prompt radiographic evaluation at a minimum. Second, penetrating head injuries associated with CSF fistulas or leakage from the wound are cited in numerous studies as a major risk for infection and should be managed accordingly.«
»My buddy was shot three times in the chest!«
Robert McIntosh was shot in the chest but »it’s unclear how many times Rob was shot, although doctors believe, though hard to imagine, one bullet could explain the four entry and exit wounds on his chest and the bullet found in his left arm.« Strangely enough, Robert doesn’t mention his friend and lifesaver Mike, who gave a lot of TV-interviews, telling the story over and over again: »My buddy was shot three times in the chest.« Three weeks after Robert was shot, he returned home.
Former Miss Las Vegas Paige Melanson »didn’t even realize she had been shot in the elbow herself until after they got to the hotel, where she said another stranger wrapped her arm in a cloth napkin.« Three days later she gave a TV interview. Her mother, Rosemarie Trautman-Melanson, was shot in the abdomen. No update on her recovery.
Jessica Milnam was shot in the abdomen within the liver. »She was loaded into a pickup truck and taken to Desert Springs Hospital Medical Center and later transferred to Sunrise. She underwent surgery to repair damage to her liver. It appeared she was on the road to recovery when her health took a downward turn.« Her »lungs had filled with blood and fluid from a bullet fragment doctors hadn’t seen. It led to a five-day stint in intensive care, where she lay unconscious connected to tubes that helped her breathe. She was later readmitted to ICU for three days because of internal bleeding after a kidney failure. She had two extensive surgeries and underwent dialysis.« 30 days after she was shot, she said she was »essentially back to normal« but still has a chest tube, and one of her lungs is still partially collapsed since her surgery but »if her body cooperates, they may be able to come home soon.« There are no updates on her GoFundme-page, but ABC7 reported that she would be coming home on Nov 3.
Officer Aaron Mundhenke was shot in the hip. According to the Bakersfield Police Department Aaron was »expected to make a full recovery.« »He had surgery [on his broken pelvis] Monday morning in Las Vegas and will be in the hospital for a few days,« said a police spokesman.
Deputy Joe Owen was shot in the abdomen and thigh. »He was released from the hospital Tuesday night [two days after he was shot] and escorted home by fellow deputies.«
Rocky Palermo was shot in the pelvis. One day later he showed his small wound, only covered with a band-aid, to a CNN-reporter live on TV and explained: »Bullet went only in, didn’t come out.« The reporter nodded in agreement: »It will never come out, it will stay forever.« His GoFundme-page states: »Rocky was shot in the back.« In an interview he gave on Oct 5 we learn, that he has »30-40 pieces of bullet shrapnel still inside his body after taking a .223 round to the pelvis and that the bullet was inches from paralyzing or even killing him. He claims the onslaught felt like it was carried out by more than one person.«
Mikenna Parry was shot in the abdomen and in the left arm. 5 days after she was shot »it was becoming easier to get out of bed and walk around.« The very next day, she returned home. Her giggling when she describes the unfolding chaos in the Las Vegas shooting is the most heartwarming moment in reality television history.
Shelby Perry was shot in the shoulder area. She has a »broken collarbone with bullet fragments in the shoulder and chest area and a bruised lung. The bullet fragmented into so many pieces that there is no way to remove them at this time, and for now, she will just do physical therapy.« She is seen on a picture giving a thumbs up. Nice.
Amanda Peterson was shot in the back. On her GoFundme-page we can read a detailed description of the gunshot wound: »The projectile went in from her lower back and actually went in an upward motion.« Because of the fragmentation of the expanding bullet, »the aorta, stomach, spleen, liver, and kidneys were all effected. The front compartment of her body actually kept the bleeding inside the back compartment of her body and that is actually what saved her life. She is very, very lucky.« Indeed. Despite these grave injuries, she was able to text a friend that she was shot. Ten days after she was shot, she can be seen sitting in a wheelchair. Three days later she »has been moved to an acute care facility in California close to her home.« How she got to the hospital and what stopped the internal bleeding, nobody seems to know.
Alexandra ‚Lexi‘ Pettis was hit in the chest and arm. Four days later, we can see her sitting on a bar stool in a TV-studio giving an interview. Mind-blowing recovery.
Olga Ramirez was struck by a bullet to her lower back. But she »would know it for some time until the adrenaline faded; on knees and elbows, they crawled under the stage to hide and used a generator as a shield; the couple eventually made their way out through a back exit to a dirt parking lot. It was then when she felt wet, as if someone had spilled a drink on her. It was blood. Fearful that continued fast-paced movement could worsen her condition, the couple flagged down a truck, which stopped, but almost immediately afterward they spotted an ambulance. She was ultimately treated at a local hospital and was doing well Monday.«
Jasara Lauren Requejo was shot »in the arm and the side of her stomach« according to her GoFundme-page. She wrote on her facebook page that »Two deputies threw me in a pick up truck and took me to the hospital.« One of the deputies wrote in a message she posted: »I think you are the lady, my squad and I took to the hospital. I am sorry we couldn’t get you an ambulance, the medics were overwhelmed. I made the decision to take you to the hospital in my truck. You were bleeding badly.« A friend of hers and survivor of the shooting, Natalie Grumet, wrote on her facebook community page that »Jasara and I were shot seconds a part. She would be shot twice, once in the arm and once in the stomach.« Jasara wrote on her facebook page, Oct 2: »I had the bullet removed and I have stitches on my stomach and my elbow and lots of little wounds on my arm.« In the posted picture, you can see her sitting in a car, so it seems, she was released from hospital the next day she was shot. Here are two pictures of her wounds, taken days after she was shot. On Oct 12, she got her stitches removed. Strangely enough, I couldn’t find her name in the media regarding the shooting.
The magic bullet of Las Vegas
Bill Robinson Jr. was hit in his abdomen. The bullet passed through his body, exited his buttock and got stuck in his wallet. »Doctors told the younger Robinson that if he was hit at a slightly different angle, the bullet could have hit his femoral artery or his spine.« Two days later, he can be seen in a picture, lying in the hospital bed giving two thumbs up. Curiously enough WCPO9 told another story on Oct 3, titled: »Las Vegas shooting victim saved when wallet blocks bullet […] Though he had been shot in the hip, Bill Robinson, Jr. was able to escape the concert venue and flag down a car and get a ride to the hospital.« In the TV report from WCPO9, you can see the messages Bill Robinson Jr. texted his father: »Dad, I’ve been shot. I am okay. Headed to the hospital.« The timestamp on the phone is ›Today, 4:31 p.m.‹ Odd. In the TV report we get a glimpse of the magic bullet that struck him and the wallet.
Nick Robone was shot in the chest. The bullet missed his lung but it is bruised badly. His brother, a paramedic, »saw blood coming out of Nick’s mouth. He and the others dragged Nick to some police cars, where they stabilized him as best they could, then waited for emergency units to take him to the hospital.« »He underwent surgery to have the bullet removed,« UNLV issued in a statement. He was discharged on Oct 11. On Nov 2, an article in the Las Vegas RJ stated that »he met with his doctor last week and learned his body is about 60 percent healed. ›They had to do a pretty extensive surgery,‹ Robone said. ›They had to lift up my rib cage and go in there and find the bullet. It was split in two‹. The icehockey coach was sewn back up, but he’s walking around with wires inside his body, and is waiting for the moment he can get back on the ice.
Ariel Romero was shot in the face and is hospitalized with a fractured jaw. »The gunshot entered her cheek and exited her neck. She wrote her mother’s phone number on her hand before losing consciousness.« On her GoFundme-page, no details are given regarding her gunshot wound. A local media report stated, that »Ariel attended her friend’s funeral on Oct 19 and walked in the procession, her chin bandaged and wrapped in gauze.« But in the article of the Daily Breeze, which covered the funeral of the Las Vegas Shooting victim Christiana Mae Duarte, Ariel isn’t mentioned at all. Very odd.
Chelsea Romo was shot in the face. »Doctors were unable to save her left eye due to the metal shrapnel that had become lodged inside. She now needs a cornea transplant to save her right eye but she will remain classed as legally blind.« Her GoFundme-page states that Chelsea »suffered multiple gunshot wounds.« Update 5/Oct 3: »still in ICU with swelling around the brain.« Returned home on Oct 7 by private jet courtesy of ESPN. Three weeks after she was shot, her right eye is recovering.
Fred Rowbotham was shot in the back, lower left hip and »was bleeding but kept running … once safe, the group stayed there for many hours.«
Karessa Royce was hit in the shoulder. The bullet »pierced her lung and caused it to collapse,« but »she pushed through the shock, and together with a friend they ran.« She was rushed to an ambulance. Her GoFundme-page gives no further details about her recovery. Karessa took to the podium on Nov 2 during a remembrance ceremony at UNLV. This can be seen in a video.
George Sanchez was shot in the arm, near his elbow. »He was treated at a Las Vegas hospital and released several hours later.«
Savannah Sanchez was shot in the back. »It hits like her esophagus, that’s attached to the stomach and then the bullet ricocheted inside her body cavity,« her mother said on 12NEWS. »She was carried by friends to medics and transported to an area hospital where she underwent surgery.« On Oct 10, her GoFundme-page stated that she is »off life support, waking up every once and a while and is talking a little. The prayers have worked miracles!« No further details regarding her recovery are given.
A law suite was filed
Rachel Sheppard was shot three times in the abdomen according to a friend of hers who spoke with her stepfather. No details are given on her GoFundme-page. Two weeks after the shooting, Sheppard filed a personal-injury suit against MGM etc. In the Complaint we can read the very details of her injury:
»She was shot 3 times – once in the upper chest, once in the torso and once in the abdomen. The shots blew her to the ground, injuring her back where she lay screaming and jolting in pain. One bullet went completely through her, two bullets remain in her body. During the ensuing chaos, a Good Samaritan picked her up, forced himself into an ambulance and held her in the ambulance applying compress to her wounds. As a result of the wounds, she almost ‚bled out‘ 3 times and required 40 units of blood and to date has undergone four surgeries while fighting for her life.«
He threw her over his shoulder
Addison Short was shot in the leg. Two days later she gave a TV interview where you can see her injured leg which is not swollen or deformed in any way: »I was shot in the ›tibula‹ (a mixture of tibia and fibula; on Dr. Phil she said: ›shin‹; in an interview one month later: »shattered leg«). Once I got back up, it literally felt my foot was dangling.« How was she saved? A stranger who made a tourniquet picked her up, threw her over his shoulder and »carried her to a taxi that took her to the Sunrise Hospital, where she was being treated Monday.« Dr. Phil visited Addison and her friend Jordyn, who sustained bullet fragments to her leg. Surprisingly I couldn’t find any mention of Jordyn’s survivor story in the media. A few days after Addison was shot she returned home. Some US soldier sustained a gunshot wound similar to Addison’s injury: »III-B fracture of tibia and fibula.« He stayed for 119 days in hospital because of an infection and some complications. See p521/Table 7.
She was stuffed in a car
Karen Smerber, wife of a retired San Bernardino Firefighter Captain, was shot in the stomach/lower abdomen. «She had a through-and-through gunshot in her abdomen. It entered her right side and exited her left.« She was rescued by Shaun Topper, who »scooped her up and carried her out of the festival grounds. He helped stuff her into a waiting car that took the dozen or so terrified passengers to a nearby hospital.« According to her GoFundme-page a surgery had to remove »8 inches of lower intestine.« On Oct 4, Karen gave an interview with ABC. »I was bleeding to death,« she said. Hard to watch. We can see some pictures of her room in the hospital. No further update in the media regarding her recovery.
Amber Smith was shot in the thigh, »rescued by a group of men – one of whom she says tossed her over his shoulder and ran with her, until flagging down an Uber driver who got her to medical attention.« I couldn’t find any media coverage of her story except an interview on Dr. Phil and an appearance (with her friend Michaela Clark) on the talk show The Doctors. Her GoFundme-page is titled ›Amber & Michaela’s Recovery‹. In an update, we learn that »Amber Smith will be starting to receive funds. Amber and Michaela have worked out with each other how they will be receiving the funds to start paying medical bills, childcare, etc.« Odd.
Jonathan Smith was shot in the left side of his neck. »›I couldn’t feel anything in my neck. There was a warm sensation in my arm,‹ he said to the journalist. ›He has a fractured collarbone, a cracked rib and a bruised lung. The doctors are leaving the bullet in his neck for now. ›I might have to live with this bullet for the rest of my life,‹ Smith said, grimacing from the pain. A large white bandage covers the bullet hole. On Twitter and Reddit, many were quick to hold up Smith as a hero.« One day after he was shot, he was discharged from hospital.
Karen Staples, daughter of a LA Fire Dpt Captain, was shot in the head. »The bullet that hit her caused a massive brain injury and she fell into a coma. Doctors tell her mother, that Karen may not wake up. If she does, it will not happen for weeks or months, and she may no longer be able to read or walk.« Karen woke up from coma on Oct 22, according to a posting on facebook. Four days later she was transported via medical flight jet to California. On Nov 6 she was moved out of ICU. No updates on her GoFundme-page. No details regarding her severe gunshot wound nor how she made it to the hospital without proper trauma care. Very similar to Tina Frost’s recovery. Strangely enough, media is not that interested in Karen’s survivor story.
Running with a tourniquet applied to the leg
Stephen Vicelja was shot in the upper thigh. He told the story how he lost his famous cowboy boots: »›I didn’t realize it was anything more than fireworks till I got shot in the upper thigh. From there I yelled at my friends that I was shot and just took off running away from the direction of the gun shots‹. He then hid behind a police car with around 30 others but took off again in fear that the shots were coming closer. With blood pouring from his leg, he ran to an empty parking lot and found a curb to sit on. A man appeared tied a belt around his wound to stop the bleeding [a leather belt is unsuitable for a tourniquet]. Then the gunfire started again. Unable to run at any great pace he was helped along by a man and his wife who ran with him [tourniquet!] until they saw a larger group which included police officers and other injured concert-goers. A stranger took off helped him remove his boots and jeans and bandaged his wound. By this time, EMTs and paramedics were on scene. They airlifted Vicelja to hospital. ›I was lifted from that curb to a car and from there to the triage and then ambulance to the hospital‹.« [Was the hilarious pun intented?]. Three days after he was shot he was interviewed at home.
Wanda Weinreich was shot through and through the thigh. She recalled, that »she started running and later would feel an intense pain in her thigh without knowing what it was. But first, she ran when others ran. As she ran, she felt an intense sting in her thigh, but she kept going. When they got down again to avoid the gunfire, Weinreich couldn’t get back up. An intense pain froze her to the ground. She looked down and saw her own blood coating her leg. A man came up to her and tied a bandana around her leg to try to slow the bleeding. Another man helped carry her across the street. Others then tied a better tourniquet around her leg. Someone pulled up in the intersection and yelled at the men to help her into the car so they could take her to the hospital.« Tuesday morning she was flying home.
A golf cart nearby
Katie Woodall was shot in the leg. »›I always thought when you got hit by a bullet, that it’d be hot or an immense amount of pain and it wasn’t like that at all,‹ Katie said. ›I didn’t know for sure until the second round ended and when I got up to run again, I couldn’t make my leg move.« She and her husband started moving again, and soon were inside a medical station that had been set up for the concert. Woodall was given an IV and cursory medical care. Soon, they were on the move again. The station was shut down amid fears it would become a target for the gunman. A third stranger — this one a man who was shirtless and wore a cowboy hat — grabbed Woodall off the ground and carried her to a golf cart nearby. … Woodall underwent surgery to repair damage and spent a few days in a Las Vegas hospital. The bullet remains lodged in Woodall’s oblique muscle.« It seems that this survivor story was only reported by a local newspaper some weeks after the shooting.
»Las Vegas history, the real Las Vegas history, makes fops and fools of even the most sincere explorers. The city’s story is riddled with blind alleys, dead ends, crazy twists, and outright fabrication.« John L. Smith
If we believe the narrative of the Las Vegas shooting, it seems easy to rescue victims with gunshot wounds. All you have to do is put pressure to the wound, make a dressing with your shirt, improvise a tourniquet with your leather belt or straps of someone’s backpack, give the socks off your feet to someone who is walking barefoot, run with or drag the victim hundreds of yards, throw him or her over a fence, put him or her – with several other severely wounded victims – in the back of a pick up truck, drive them to the next best hospital and dump all of them in the lobby as fast as you can. Then head back to the disaster zone and repeat your lifesaving routine until there are no victims left. Lastly you might give a TV interview and tell your impressive story. But is that really the way it works in reality?
Mind you this mass casualty incident didn’t happen in some village in Iraq or Afghanistan, it happened in the 24/7 city of Las Vegas!
Let’s watch this graphic video of a Marine in Afghanistan, who gets shot through and through the shoulder/neck, to get a feeling of the intensity of a firefight with high velocity rifles. He is helped by two of his comrades who are packing a special gauze deep into the wound channel. The yelling Marine, who is in f*cking pain, seems unwilling to move before his ‚fleshwound‘ is treated.
The picture of war — Bullets hurt, corpses stink, men under fire are often so frightened that they wet their trousers. George Orwell
If you read the stories of the survivors and first responders you wonder, where is the pain, where is the agony, where is the horror? A lot of victims with severe gunshot wounds were able to run, climb, push, hop, crawl, talk, breath, sit, and wait without screaming or going into hysterics. It seems that not one victim refused to be dragged along, to be pushed into a crammed car or to be put into a pick up truck because of the pain or the fear, the injury might worsen. It seems that not one medic, EMT or officer tried to stop some laymen in ‚helping‘ the severely wounded by applying improvised and ineffective tourniquets, by putting them in wheelbarrows, beer carts, golf carts or by throwing them over a fence and in the back of a pickup truck. It seems that not one wounded in all of the stories went into shock (put simply: »organs aren’t getting enough blood or oxygen«). Despite the fact that a lot of victims sustained gunshot wounds to the chest, we never learn, how the layman treated a sucking chest wound or was aware of a possible tension pneumothorax. We never hear or read that a victim was laid down, his head turned to the side to prevent inhalation of vomit and kept warm. Ah, of course, nobody had to throw up.
So, what do YOU make of it?
Dare to know! (Sapere aude.)
»Have the courage to use your own understanding«
is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.
Immanuel Kant (1784)