Schlagwort-Archive: emigration

Wien, im März 1938 #1 Helen Blank

Nun, es ist bald 80 Jahre her, dass Österreich zur Ostmark und ins damalige Deutsche Reich integriert wurde. Ob dieser sogenannte Anschluss freiwillig oder mittels Zwang erfolgte, darüber wird das eine oder andere Mal gestritten, weil damit auch die Frage nach Schuld und Komplizenschaft einhergeht. Je nach politischer Wetterlage wird der Opfermythos zum Spielball intellektueller Agitatoren.

Durch Zufall bin ich auf das Archiv des Leo Baeck Institutes in New York City gestoßen. Das Zentrum für jüdische Geschichte hat es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht, das Leben der österreichischen Immigranten vor 1938 mittels eines Fragebogens zu dokumentieren. Im Internetarchiv können Sie einige der eingescannten Fragebögen durchsehen: link

Wien, im März 1938 #1 Helen Blank weiterlesen

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Unterrichtsfilm: The Work of the US Public Health Service von 1936: Der Umgang mit Fleckfieber-Patienten

In diesem Unterrichts- und Aufklärungsfilm über die Arbeiten des US Public Health Service aus dem Jahr 1936 erfährt der interessierte Zuseher, wie man damals dem Fleckfieber aus der Alten Welt, übertragen durch die Kleiderlaus, beizukommen gedachte. Weiters erklärt der Film, dass die amerikanischen Behörden seit 1925 in vielen Emigrationsländern – beispielsweise im damaligen Deutschland – Ärzte beauftragten, die nach den USA einreisen wollende Menschen bereits vor Ort auf Herz und Nieren zu untersuchen hatten. Nur wer diese körperliche und geistige Untersuchung bestand, durfte die Reise antreten und mit einer möglichen Aufnahme im Land der unbegrenzten Möglichkeiten rechnen.

Falls Ihnen das geschriebene Wort lieber ist als das gesprochene, hier das Transkript des von mir ausgesuchten Ausschnitts:

 

[07:41] The quarantine officer is taken to the sick bay in the crew’s quarters to examine the patient.

[07:49] His experience and training in the detection of the symptoms of rare, as well as common diseases, tells him that this patient is suffering from typhus fever.

[07:59] He orders the patient to be removed from the vessel,

[08:09] and put aboard the quarantine tug to be taken ashore.

[08:16] All persons who have been in contact with the patient, and thus have been exposed to the disease, are also ordered on board the tug.

[08:27] The patient and the contacts are taken to the detention hospital, in this instance, Hoffman Island in New York Harbor.

[08:41] On their arrival, the sick patient is taken directly to the hospital.

[08:50] Here he is given appropriate treatments and cared for until he has recovered.

[08:56] Every facility is made available in such cases, both for the benefit of the patient himself, and for the protection of others.

[09:05] As this happens to be a case of Old World, which is known to be spread by the body louse, the contacts, those who have had association with the patient during the voyage, are first taken to the delousing plant.

[09:20] Here they must remove all of their clothing,

[09:26] Thoroughly sprayed with soap and water.

[09:31] Next they are sent under the shower.

[09:37] And finally, each one is sprayed with an insecticide that kills any lice or nits that may still remain in their hair.

[09:47] The clothing of these contacts is placed in net bags, and these bags are sent to the fumigating room.

[09:53] This clothing, together with the baggage of the contacts, is placed in fumigating chambers, were it is thoroughly disinfested.

[10:00] If necessary, the contacts are isolated in the detention hospital for observation.

[10:05] Every precaution is taken by the quarantine officers to prevent the introduction of disease into the United States.

[10:13] When the quarantine work has been completed, and the ship declared free from danger, the medical officers of the Public Health Service then turn to the inspection of immigrants.

[10:25] This scene shows the well-known immigration station at Ellis Island New York.

[10:34] During the busy period of a few years ago, more prospective citizens of this country arriving from abroad entered through this world-renowned station than through any other port of the country.

[10:43] In past years thousands of aliens arrived at Ellis Island daily, and each one had to undergo an examination at the hands of the medical officers of the Public Health Service.

[10:55] In past times too, many of them arrived only to be turned back at our very gate, because of mental or physical defects.

[11:01] This was a necessary, but somewhat cruel procedure, and caused many heart aches, untold hardships, and much unnecessary expense.

[11:09] To avoid this condition, a new system was inaugurated by international consent in 1925,

[11:15] since which year, intending immigrants have been examined in foreign countries by Public Health Service officers who are assigned to American consulates for this purpose.

[11:23] The prospective immigrant makes application through the American consul, who, if the applicant comes within the quota prescribed by Congress, arranges for an examination by the Public Health Service medical officer.

[11:33] If the applicant passes these physical and mental tests successfully, there is little chance that he will be refused admittance later.